Question of the Day #3


The answer to the previous question is: Since copper is a good conductor of heat and it has a low specific heat capacity, it conducts the heat energy and takes less amount of heat energy from its contents to acquire the temperature of its contents. Hence,Ā it is used in making a calorimeter.

Congratulations to Harsh, Harsimar, and Ā Kritika for getting it right! šŸ™‚

Question of the Day: Name a reddish brown deliquescent salt.

Leave your answers in the comment section below! I will update this tomorrow with the correct answer. šŸ™‚

Chemistry: Common and IUPAC Names of Organic Compounds (Notes)


Here are some notes that I have made, after collecting the common and IUPAC names of well known organic compounds from Wikipedia. I’m sure you will find these notes very useful while studying organic chemistry. Often, examiners ask questions in the exam, wherein they use the common name of an organic compound, which many of us may not know. Hence, to be on the safe side, make sure you memorize the common and IUPAC names of these frequently used organic compounds. šŸ™‚

You will find a PDF file for the following notes at the end of the post.

The common and IUPAC names of the organic compounds in order of their functional groups are given in a tabular form:


Alkanes

StructureĀ  Common nameĀ  IUPAC nameĀ 
CH3-CH2-CH2-CH3 n-Butane Butane
(CH3)2CH CH3 iso-Butane 2-methyl propane
CH3(CH2)4CH3 n-hexane Hexane
CH3.(CH3)2.C.CH3 neo pentane 2,2-di methyl propane
CH4 methane methane
CH3-CH3 Ethane Ethane
CH3-CH2-CH3 Propane Propane


Alkenes

StructureĀ  Common nameĀ  IUPAC nameĀ 
CH2=CH2 Ethylene Ethene
CH3-CH=CH2 Propylene Propene
CH3-CH2-CH=CH2 Unsym butylene 1-butene
CH3-CH=CH-CH3 Sym butene 2-butene

Alkynes

StructureĀ  Common nameĀ  IUPAC nameĀ 
H-Cā‰”C-H Acetylene Ethyne
CH3-Cā‰”C-H Methyl acetylene/
Propylene
Propyne
CH3-CH2-Cā‰”C-H Ethyl acetylene/
Butylene
1-butyne
CH3-Cā‰”C-CH3 Di methyl acetylene
Butylene
2-butyne

Alcohols

StructureĀ  Common nameĀ  IUPAC nameĀ 
CH3-OH Methyl alcohol Methanol
CH3-CH2-OH Ethyl alcohol Ethanol
CH3-CH2-CH2-OH n- Propyl alcohol Propanol
CH3-CH(OH)-CH3 iso-propyl alcohol 2-propanol or propan-2-ol

Ā 

Ethers

StructureĀ  Common nameĀ  IUPAC nameĀ 
CH3-O-CH3 Dimethyl ether Methoxy methane
CH3-CH2-O-CH2-CH3 Diethyl ether Ethoxy ethane
CH3-O-CH2-CH3 Ethylmethylether methoxy ethane

Aldehydes

StructureĀ  Common nameĀ  IUPAC nameĀ 
HCHO Formaldehyde Methanal
CH3CHO Acetaldehyde Ethanal
CH3-CH2-CHO Propanaldehyde Propanal

Ketones

StructureĀ  Common nameĀ  IUPAC nameĀ 
CH3COCH3 Acetone Propanone
CH3-CH2-CO-CH3 Ethyl methyl ketone Butanone

Carboxylic acids

StructureĀ  Common nameĀ  IUPAC nameĀ 
HCOOH Formic acid Methanoic acid
CH3COOH Acetic Acid Ethanoic acid
CH3-CH2COOH Propionic acid Propanoic acid
CH3-CH2-CH2-COOH n-butyric acid Butanoic acid

Esters

StructureĀ  Common nameĀ  IUPAC nameĀ 
H-CO-OCH3 Methyl formate Methyl methanoate
CH3-CO-OCH2-CH3 Ethyl acetate Ethyl ethanoate

Alkyl halides

StructureĀ  Common nameĀ  IUPAC nameĀ 
CH3-Cl Methyl chloride Chloromethane
CH3-CH2-Br Ethyl bromide Bromoehtane

Acid Chloride

StructureĀ  Common nameĀ  IUPAC nameĀ 
H-COCl Formyl chloride Methanoyl chloride
CH3-COCl Acetyl chloride Ethanoyl chloride

Ā 

Acid amides

StructureĀ  Common nameĀ  IUPAC nameĀ 
H-CO-NH2 Formamide Methanamide
CH3-CO-NH2 Acetamide Ethanamide

Amines (Primary)

StructureĀ  Common nameĀ  IUPAC nameĀ 
CH3-NH2 Methyl amine Methanamine
CH3-CH2-NH2 Ethyl amine Ethanamine

Amines (Secondary)

StructureĀ  Common nameĀ  IUPAC nameĀ 
(CH3)2-NH Di methyl amine N-methyl methanamine
CH3-CH2-(CH3)-NH Ethyl methyl amine N-methylethanamine

Ā 

Amines (Tertiary)

StructureĀ  Common nameĀ  IUPAC nameĀ 
(CH3)3N Tri methyl amine N,N-dimethyl methanamine
CH3-CH2(CH3)2N Ethyl dimethyl amine N,N-dimethyl ethanamine

Other common names for compounds:

C6H6(Benzene)

C6H5.OH (Phenol)

C6H5.NH2Ā ( Aniline)

C6H5.CH3( Toluene)

C6H5COOH(Benzoic acid)

C12H22O11(Sucrose)

Many other compounds have names, still in use, which are not in connivance with IUPAC guidelines but accepted, e.g., Camphor, Naphthalene, Anthracene, Isoprene, etc.

Secondary suffix indicates the functional group present in the compound. The functional groups are mentioned as follows:

  • Alcohol -ol
  • Aldehyde -al
  • Ketone -one
  • Carboxylic acidĀ -oic acid
  • Ester -oate
  • Acid chloride -oyl chloride
  • Alkyl cyanide ā€“nitrile, etc.

Hereā€™s a link to the PDF file for the above notes:

NOTES – Common and IUPAC Names of Organic Compounds

You may print these notes through the PDF file and refer to them as required. We would appreciate it if you abstain from reproducing any part of these notes without our prior permission. For more information, please contact us. Thank you.

Chemistry: Names and Colors of Common Salts


Salts

Salts

These are just a few names of compounds, what color they are, their special characteristics (if any), etc.

You’ll find this information useful inĀ Acids, Bases, and Salts; Analytical Chemistry; and in the differentiate between two salt/acids/compounds questions.

Hope this helps you out! šŸ™‚ All you have to do is keep this in mind and apply it wherever needed! (Helps a lot in application-based questions!)

Hereā€™s a link to the PDF file for the above mentioned notes:

NOTES – Names and Colors of Common Salts

 

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This work by Helpline for ICSE Students (Class X – Class 10) is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

You may print these notes through the PDF file and refer to them as required. We would appreciate it if you abstain from reproducing any part of these notes without our prior permission. For more information, please contact us. Thank you.