Biology: The Excretory System (Notes)


Kidney (Photo credit: Joshua Schwimmer)



Hi everyone! I’ve finally come out of my shell, and here are the notes on the excretory system, as promised to a follower. The content has been collected by me through various textbooks and classroom lectures taken by my Biology teacher, Mrs. S**** M*****. A very big thank you to her, for her insight and deep knowledge of the subject which she so generously shared with us.

The notes include definitions and important points to note regarding the excretory system, as well as an outline of the processes by which urine is formed, along with the help of various diagrams. The diagrams used for these notes have been carefully selected through my all time go-to website, Google Images, and because of the lazy person that I am, I regret not being able to list down all sources of these diagrams and pictures I have used in my notes. If you find that I have used one of your diagrams, and would like me to give proper credit for the same, or would like me to not use the diagram at all, please leave a comment and I’ll get back to you.


Hereโ€™s a link to the PDF file for the mentioned notes:

NOTES – The Excretory System
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This work by Helpline for ICSE Students (Class X – Class 10) is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

You may print these notes through the PDF file and refer to them as required. We would appreciate it if you abstain from reproducing any part of these notes without our prior permission. For more information, please contact us. Thank you.



Thank you! ๐Ÿ™‚

Biology: Mitosis and Meiosis (Diagrams)

Here are a few diagrams I came across on Google, while studying about cell division. I don’t exactly remember the exact website from where these diagrams have been taken, hence, forgive me for not being able to give proper credit to them. However, I do hope that you will find these diagrams helpful in making you understand the basic concept of mitosis and meiosis. ๐Ÿ™‚

Click on the diagrams to enlarge them!


Mitosis Diagram

ย  Mitosis Diagram 

Meiosis Diagramย  ย  ย 
Meiosis DiagramSynpasis - Pairing of Homologous Chromosomes 1 

Synpasis – Pairing of Homologous Chromosomes 1

Synpasis - Pairing of Homologous Chromosomes 2
Synpasis – Pairing of Homologous Chromosomes 2

Synpasis - Pairing of Homologous Chromosomes 3

Synpasis – Pairing of Homologous Chromosomes 3


Biology: Cell Cycle Table

I remember going through Google, looking for something that would clearly explain to me the various stages of the cell cycle, and ultimately, I came upon the following table. I’m not exactly sure from where I obtained this table, hence, I’m not able to properly give credit to the person who has so flawlessly provided us with a thorough point-to-point explanation of the cell cycle. Hence, forgive me for the same, but I do hope that you will find the following table very useful in properly understanding the cell cycle. ๐Ÿ™‚

Also, while writing your answer, you may present it in the form of a table (after consulting your respective school teacher), so that the examiner may come to know that you have thoroughly understood the concept.

Cell Cycle Table

Cell Cycle Table