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HISTORY – FIRST WORLD WAR
Q1) What was the immediate cause of the First World War?
On June 28, 1914 Archduke Francis Ferdinand, the Crown Prince of Austria, and his wife were assassinated at Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia. The assassination was planned in Serbia by a secret society who wanted to achieve the union of all South Slavs under Serbia. Serbia was blamed for their assassination and Austria sent an ultimatum to Serbia. The Serbian refused to accept the ultimatum and it led to the beginning of the First World War.
Q2) When and where was the Treaty of Versailles signed? Name the leaders who framed the treaty.
The Treaty of Versailles was signed on June 28, 1919 in the Hall of Mirrors at Versailles in France. The leaders who played an active role in framing this treaty were the British Prime Minister Lloyd George, the French Premier Clemenceau, the U.S. President Woodrow Wilson, and Italy’s Prime Minister Vittorio Orlando.
Q3) Mention three points under the Treaty of Versailles which affected Germany.
Germany was humiliated by the Treaty of Versailles, 1919.
(a) Her allies and she had to cede pre-war territories. She had to give up her colonial empire which was in turn, divided among the victors.
(c) Germany had to give up Danzig, which became a free/independent port.
(d) Germany had to demilitarize and limit her army and vessels (ships). Germany wasn’t allowed to keep any submarines.
Q4) State the cause of the failure of the League of Nations.
(a) The League of Nations was set up to maintain peace in the world and prevent wars. However, was unable to achieve her objective due to lack of military power to implement her decisions and to punish the defaulters. They did not have an international army ready to fight for peace.
(b) The League of Nations could not take any appropriate action when Italy annexed Abyssinia, Japan annexed Manchuria, and Germany annexed Austria and Czechoslovakia. The member nations hence, lost faith in the league.
(c) The two main super powers of the world, the United States of America and the Soviet Union, refused to be members of the League of Nations. Hence, the league lacked the necessary support from these two main countries.
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