History: First War of Independence 1857, India (Notes Part 2)


Activities during the 1857 Sepoy Mutiny mostly...

Activities during the 1857 Sepoy Mutiny mostly took place in the northern part of India. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Credits go to our ex-social studies teacher, Ms. P********* P*****, for compiling these notes. Thank you for your time.🙂 These notes will surely help all the students who check them out.

HISTORY

FIRST WAR OF INDEPENDENCE aka REVOLT OF 1857

 Q.1 What kind of revolts took place before the revolt of 1857?1. There were many revolts between 1765 and 1856. The people who revolted were mainly deprived landlords, disbanded soldiers, tribal people and impoverished  peasants and artisans. These uprisings testify to the gradual dissatisfaction of the people against the British exploitation  This resentment resulted in a number of uprisings; the most significant among was the revolt of 1857. Q.2 What were tribal revolts? Why did they take place?2. The British annexed large pieces of tribal lands to cultivate cash crops. This rendered the tribal people landless.  They were forced to work as laborers. Customary rights like forest and pasturage rights were taken from them. This led to the most legendary Tribal revolt by the Santhals of Bengal and Bihar.

 

Q.3 What were the political causes for the revolt of 1857?

  • 3. The British policy of Subsidiary Alliance.
  • Annexation under the pretext of mal-administration.
  • Doctrine of Lapse where in the absence of natural heir the kingdom lapsed in to the hands of the British. The sentiments of the people were hurt.

All these created alarm and discontent which gave way to the first war of Independence – The Great Revolt of 1857.

 

Q.4 What were the social causes for the revolt of 1857?

  • British interference in the Indian religious customs and traditions.
  • Force full conversion of religion. The Hindus and Muslims were forced by Christian missionaries to embrace Christianity.
  • The social order of the centuries felt threatened when great reformers started abolishing practices of Sati and infanticide.
  • Widow remarriage was legalized.
  • High ranking jobs were always with the British.
  • The education reduced the importance of the Pundits and maulvis.

 

Q.5 What were the economic causes for the revolt of 1857?

  • The British confiscated land which ruined the farmers.
  • Cash tax payment ruined the peasants.
  • British goods were sold at a cheaper rate in the Indian market because of the Industrial revolution across the globe. This ruined the Indian industry.
  • Royal patronage to poets, musicians, artists, was withdrawn which rendered them penniless. Soldiers lost their jobs.

 

Q.6 What were the military causes for the revolt of 1857?

  • The Indian soldiers were paid very little wages than the British soldiers.
  • The Indian soldiers were considered lower than the British soldiers and were continuously abused and humiliated.
  • The Indian sepoys were not selected for the higher posts in the army and were only allowed till the post of a subedar.
  • The British forced Indian soldiers to fight wars outside India which was not accepted to the Indian soldiers.
  • The high and the low caste Indian soldiers were treated equally and was a great disappointment to the higher caste soldiers.

These factors together culminated the revolt of 1857.

 

CONSEQUENCES OF THE War of Independence

  1. Changes in the administrative set up: end of company’s rule, actual governance was to be carried on as before by the Governor General who was also given the title of Viceroy or Crown’s personal representatives.
  2. Queen victoria’s proclamation, 1858: policy towards Indian Princes and Chiefs.
  3. End of the Peshwa and the Mughal
  4. Promises to the people.
  5. Changes in army organization
  6. Policy of divide and rule
  7. Increased economic exploitation.
  8. Rise of nationalism in India

Here’s a link to the PDF file for the above notes:

NOTES – Revolt of 1857

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